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Who will and who won't get a stimulus check, and why

From NBC News -

This is a very comprehensive list of who will and will not received the coronavirus stimulus checks from NBC News.

WASHINGTON - For millions of Americans awaiting coronavirus cash, help is not on the way.

Although the $2 trillion stimulus bill passed last month includes payments of up to $1,200 for everyone who makes less than the limit, many Americans will fall through the cracks. That includes most college kids, immigrants without Social Security numbers and some disabled adults.

Why so many gaps? Part of it is the urgency that faced Congress as it rushed to get money to Americans as fast as possible. There wasn't much time to fine-tune the bill to address every contingency. Lawmakers opted to base eligibility on tax returns, even though many people don't file them.

Congress also wanted to ensure that the money goes to those who really need it now. Most Americans could use some extra cash even in the best of times. But some people's livelihoods have been more directly affected by the pandemic than others.

For those who qualify, payments will start going out from the IRS in mid-April. The IRS is using 2019 tax returns to determine eligibility or 2018 returns for those who haven't filed for 2019 yet.

Here's a look at who falls through the cracks:

If someone else claims you as a dependent on their taxes, you won't get your own check. Parents will get an extra $500 payment per child, but that's only for kids under 17.

Most 17-year-olds, some young adults and many of the country's roughly 20 million college students are claimed by their parents as dependents. They won't get checks, and their parents won't get an extra $500.

People who get disability benefits from the Social Security Administration or Veterans Affairs are eligible for the payments — but not disabled adults who are claimed as dependents by their parents or other relatives on their taxes.

Senior citizens who are on Social Security or make less than the income cap are eligible. But the "dependent" rule applies to them, too. Some seniors who live with their adult children or other relatives are claimed by them as dependents on their taxes. Those seniors won't get checks.

You don't have to be a U.S. citizen to get a payment. But you do need a valid Social Security number.

That means immigrants with green cards and those on H-1B and H-2A visas will get payments. Nonresident aliens, temporary workers and immigrants in the U.S. illegally won't.

The $500 payment per child, like the individual payments, is based on 2019 taxes. So parents who welcomed babies into the world in the first months of this year won't get money for them now. Instead, they'll likely get $500 credits next year when they file their 2020 taxes.

The size of the payments starts scaling down for those who made more than $75,000 last year and zeroes out at $98,000 or more.

But what if you exceeded the limit in 2019 only to lose your job or get a lower-paying job this year? You won't get a payment now, but you will get a credit on your taxes next year when the system catches up.

Some parents who aren't married and split custody of their kids take turns each year claiming them on their taxes. Because the payments go off your 2019 tax return, whoever has the even years is out of luck.

Not everyone who filed taxes jointly with a spouse in 2019 is still married to that spouse — or on speaking terms.

Couples who filed their taxes jointly last year get a single, combined payment of up to $2,400. The funds will be deposited into whatever bank account was used to deposit your most recent tax refund, unless you update your direct deposit information with the IRS. But there's no system to inform the IRS that you have divorced or are estranged.

The stimulus law puts on hold other debts that typically lead to tax refunds' being garnished, such as overdue student loans or back taxes. But not child support. The coronavirus money can still be garnished if you're overdue on those payments.

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